Tuesday, February 28, 2023

Back This: The ShadowDark the RPG

I discovered the ShadowDark RPG several months ago and I was hooked right away. It's an Old School approach to adventuring with New School mechanics that are streamlined and easy to teach and learn. It captures the heart of early Dungeons and Dragons while embracing a modern approach separate from the wargaming roots of the OSR. The Arcane Library publishes well-designed adventures that help a busy DM focus on the game at the table in a very elegant and clear manner.  Kelsey Dionne, the owner and designer, has created a wonderful community to interact with. The game funded in 12 minutes and I am so excited to be able to finally back it.

I've already purchased the Quickstart rules and the Cursed Scroll Vol 1 Diablerie! as physical products, something I rarely do these days. I urge you to take a look for yourself.

You can back it here. 

Full disclosure: I have gotten access  a beta PDF of the rules.

I have produced a supplement with new Races for it here and material on the blog here.

Monday, February 27, 2023

Serpent Folk, a Racial Class for Gargoyle 74, White Box Games, & the OSR

I really enjoyed Stellagama Publishing's Gargoyle 74, a neat riff on White Box DnD, specifically their Racial Classes which had a weird Sword and Sorcery vibe to them. It led me to think about Conan's Serpent Men as much from the Marvel Comics as anything else. They are based off the G74 Rogue and I had a lot of fun with it. I presented them with a single Saving Throw and the Old School Essential's Saving Throw Categories as optional rules.

I hope people enjoy it and would love feedback either way.

You can purchase it here.

Thursday, February 23, 2023

Spotlight on Gargoyle 74 by Stellagama Publishing

Gargoyle 74 is a retroclone of the 1974 White Box of Dungeons and Dragons by Tammiro Levi and Omer Golan-Joel and published by Stellagama Publishing. I'm a big fan of Stellagama and Omer and have purchased many of their products such as Sword of Cepheus and the Quantum Engine games such as Barbaric! and I received this PDF for free as a review copy.

Ability Scores grant a -1 with a 6 or less, +0 with a 7-14, and +1 with a 15-18. I'm a fan of this spread. It allows customization but it's not overly fiddly. Only Fighters add their Strength mod to their attack rolls.

Wisdom has been replaced by Intuition and I like that decision. I think Wisdom might have a different meaning than it did in the '70s so I'm cool with it.

You have the big 4 classes in the Cleric, Fighter, Mage, and Rogue. Fighters get a 2nd attack at 5t level and Rogues have a Subterfuge skill that is an X chance on a d6 roll. All classes use the same XP table and there is one Saving Throw stat but classes gain specific +2 bonuses for certain types.

Ascending AC is used.

There are roles for 1 GM and 1 Player included, as well.

We get full rules for magic items and monsters all in just this single book of 114 pages.

There are 3 Appendices and the first features the Non-Human Race-as-Classes.

Antediluvans are inspired by Elric's Melniboeans and are your Fighter-Mage class. I love this choice and it's a testament to both authors that a clone of this version of DnD can still surprise me.

Dwarves are next but their skin is copper, their beards bronze, and "If one listens closely, it is possible to hear a faint ticking sound coming from each dwarf. This is the sound of the gears turning and grinding inside each dwarf." Another neat surprise that is just cherry on top. Their metal bodies given them a bonus to AC, they have an innate bonus to Hit Points, healing spells don't work on them, and there is a very specific way to bring them back from the dead.

The third and final Non-Human are Lizard-Kin who can hold their breath for long periods of time, their AC improves as they level, and they have natural attacks with their claws.

Appendix B features Treasure and Appendix C features numerous random tables including building a dungeon.

I'm really happy with this product and I think it jumps to the head of the class as my favorite White Box clone. The rules have a nice Sword and Sorcery feel that I've also enjoyed with Barbaric!.

I'll probably start running this with my 9 year old to induct her into our OSR fellowship in the next few months.

I cannot recommend this product enough. In fact, I cannot recommend any Stellagama product enough. All of my purchases have been extremely satisfactory and you should check out what they have to offer.


Death's Head Keep Level 2, Room 18. #Dungeon23

   The door from Room 17 leads here. 

You walk into a kitchen that is dimly lit by an enchantment worked into the stones of a huge hearth. A cast-iron cauldron, shaped into the smiling face of the Godmother, dominates the entire room.

  • It is 15’ x 30’.
  • A narrow table runs most of the length of the left-hand wall and a lonely rolling pin sits cockeyed upon it.
  • Just after this table is a wide blue door.
  • A long table cuts through the middle of the room and it has the word "Frae" carved roughly into it.
  • Shelves and larders are bare and there is a slight echo to the room.
  • A faint smell of warm cookies lingers greeting you.
  • The ceiling is 14' high with thicken wooden rafters.
  • There are no webs of any kind within this kitchen.

Saturday, February 18, 2023

Death's Head Keep Level 2, Room 17 #Dungeon23

  The door from Room 16 leads here. 

The Sigil of the Witch Queen

A long hallway with windows on both sides that reveal an infinite night filled with stars.

  • It is 30’ x 10’.
  • The hallway's temperature is 30° and it leads to a heavy orichalcum door with the Sigil of the Witch Queen in dried blood.
  • A successful Occult check reveals that the hallway is built within the Plane of Night and the outside is lethal to humanoids.
  • The windows have a Parry of 2 and their Object Hardness is 20 (SWADE pg. 98). A broken window will require each creature to succeed at an Athletics check at -2 or be pulled outside where they will die in 1d4 minutes. The windows are enchanted to repair themselves in 1d6 turns.

Thursday, February 16, 2023

Death's Head Keep Level 2, Room 16. #Dungeon23

 The door from Room 15 leads here. 

A landing with stairs going up and down lie before you.

  • It is 15’ x 10’.
  • Dim green lights are built into the left and right wall of the landing.
  • If the stairs leading down are taken the sixth step is trap that turns the steps into a slide leading to pit trap with spikes that opens up on the bottom landing. Any PCs that move down the stairs are considered one step behind each other.
  • A successful Notice check at -2 alerts a PC to the trap. 
  • A successful Athletic check lets a PC catch on to something and not fall into the pit or be harmed by the spikes.
  • Remember that some of the PC's may be Fatigued, Exhausted or Wounded from previous rooms or attempt Multi-Actions to help their allies.
  • The spikes in the trap inflict 3d6 damage and are AP 2.
  • The door on the bottom landing is fake and leads nowhere and the stairs that appear to lead further down from that landing simply lead to a stone wall.

Death's Head Keep Level 2, Room 15

 The left door from Room 14 leads here. 

The wall to the right is covered in a bright yellow hive that throbs to a silent beat.

  • It is 20’ x 10’.
  • Toward the far corner of the left-most wall is a brass door that is locked by 3 deadbolts.
  • Once a creature of Size 1/2 or greater steps on this room's floor the hive immediately stops throbbing and one round later vomits forth hundreds of shiny golden worms that blindly launch themselves at the nearest creature.
  • The worms are a Quick Encounter (SWADE pg. 134-135) and the PCs can make an Athletics (get out of the way), Common Knowledge (the door is locked), Fighting (smash them), or Thievery (unlock the door quickly) check at +1. A failed individual roll causes a PC 1 Wound or d4 Wounds on a Critical Failure. An individual success means the PC only has Bumps and Bruises (SWADE pg. 125) or are unscathed with a raise.
  • If the PCs have less total successes than their number and they gained a wound then they became Fatigued or Exhausted on Critical Failure.
  • The worms are destroyed when they pass through either door.
  • A successful Academics or Occult roll identifies these as writhers an alien swarm that can drain a creature of all of its blood in minutes. A raise informs a PC that anyone wounded by a writher can now be tracked magically by certain spells for 2d8 days.

Tuesday, February 14, 2023

Death's Head Keep Level 2, Room 14

The left door from Room 10 leads here. 

A huge grandfather clock is placed against the left wall this room.

  • It is 10’ x 10’.
  • The grandfather clock is twice the size of a normal one.
  • Its cabinet is a light maple and the metal components are made of orichalcum.
  • A booming roar announces that it is Noon and Midnight.
  • The floor is covered in saw dust.
  • A secret alcove behind the clock can found with a successful Notice check at -1.
  • The alcove has 5 shelves and there is a Bearskin Cloak (pg. 149 SWADE Fantasy Companion), Cap of Tongues (pg. 150), and a Potion of Spider Climb and Recharge (pg. 145) on them.
  • The ceiling is 30' high and features a large an enchanted lamp offering bright light.

Monday, February 13, 2023

Death's Head Keep Level 2, Room 13. #Dungeon23

A square cage pushes so close to each wall that there is just enough room to squeeze around its edges.

  • The room is 10 x 10.
  • The cage is 8' x 8' and is made of cold iron.
  • Its door is missing and there is a scorch mark on the wall where it should be.
  • A moldering blanket and a doll made from a corn husk are all that lie within it.
  • Below the blanket is the rune of Captivity and it has been broken and therefore powerless.
  • The ceiling is only 6' high
  • There is no other door in this room.

Death's Head Keep Level 2, Room 12. #Dungeon23


A blazing inferno roars in a pit that dominates this room.

  • The room is 80 x 80.
  • The fire pit has a diameter of 30'.
  • The heat from the fire is so intense that a creature may not get closer than 10' without some form of heat resistance.
  • One round after entering the room 4 azers step out of the flame.
  • The ceiling is 70’ high and forms a chimney covered in soot and ash.

Their weapons glow white hot as the azsers they move in close.

  • Their leader is a head taller than the rest of her kin and she eyes each of the PCs before saying, "I am Hralda Brightspear and my clan and I have pledged to protect this Keep and slay any intruders. Prepare to die."
  • Herald's spear is enchanted and grants a +1 to Athletics (Throwing) and Fighting as well as a +1 to damage. Additionally, it grants +1d6 natural Armor against fire.
  • On the far wall is a set of steel double doors.

Hralda Brightspear 

Parry 7 | Tough 9 (3) | Pace 6 (d6)

Athletics d8 | Fighting d8 + 1 

(spear d8 + d6 + 1) | Shooting d6 | 

Ag d8, Sm d8, Sp d6, St d8, Vi d8 | 

Edges Frenzy | Special Abilities 

Damage Field 2d4, Immunity to fire


Parry 7 Tough 8 (3) Pace 6 (d6) 

Athletics d6 Fighting d8 (warhammer 

d8 + d6) Shooting d6 | Ag d6, Sm d6, 

Sp d6, St d6, Vi d6 | Special Abilities 

Damage Field 2d4, Immunity to fire

Saturday, February 11, 2023

Death's Head Keep Level 2, Room 11. #Dungeon23

This room is oval with a dais in the middle and an archway standing empty upon it.

  • This room is entered by taking the door on the right from the previous room.
  • It has a diameter of 30’.
  • The archway doesn’t lead anywhere but it radiates a palpable feeling of dread, oblivion, and wrongness.
  • When a PC moves through the archway their life flashes before their eyes and they must make a Spirit check. If successful the next time they spend a Bennie, as long as they are still on Level 2 of the Keep, it is treated as Conviction. If failed they become Fatigued and the GM gains 1 Benny. The archway may only affect each PC in this way one time.
  • The ceiling is 15’ high.
  • There is a strange blue door that is 5’ tall and 5’ wide past the archway .

Castles & Crusades: Ice Men

"Hyperborea is a cold and unforgiving realm with long nights, blasting winds, and a cold that can seep into one's soul as easily as their bones. Occasionally, Boreas hears the cries of the dying and offers them an alternative to a frigid and lonely death. Those that accept his offer find their very skin hardening into transparent ice. They no longer feel the wind and ice as they follow him into the North Wind. There they wait, patient and frozen, until he unleashes his ice men as a storm upon the land."


NUMBER: 2-8, 10-100   INT: Average

SIZE: Medium              ALIGNMENT: Neutral Evil
HD: 1 (d8)                    TYPE: Humanoid
AC: 14                          TREASURE: 1

SAVES: P                     XP: 5+3
MOVE: 30 ft.
ATTACKS: By weapon

SPECIAL: Duskvision, Immunity to Cold (full), Hide and Move Silently as Level 1 Rogue





INT: Average

Death's Head Keep: Level 2, Room 10. #Dungeon23


A hallway turns to the right and after about 50’ has three short steps leading.

  • It is 10’ x 75’.
  • Three torches are mounted 7’ above the along the left hand wall.
  • Their green flame indicates they are enchanted.
  • The ceiling is 15’ high.

After the steps two doors are set in far wall. One to the right and one to the left.

  • Both doors are locked.
  • Neither is trapped.
  • A successful Thievery check will open either door.

Sitting vigilantly above both doors in the center of the wall is a gargoyle. 

  • It’s perch is about 8’ high.
  • A successful Notice roll at -1 reveals that it opens its left eye every 15 to 20 seconds to spy on anyone in the hallway.
  • If spoken to it will reveal it’s name is Kerna and it is a spy for it’s clan here in the Keep.
  • Kerna is a pacifist and won’t defend itself if attacked.
  • If pressed they will admit that they deplore violence and are essentially an outcast given this role because their parents were too embarrassed to have her stay at their megalith.
  • Kerna’s parents are the leaders of her megalith. Their father is known as the Stalactite and their mother is known as the Stalagmite.
  • Kerna isn’t used to kindness let alone anyone listening to her so any social Trait rolls involving her are at a +2.
  • If asked directly she will advise taking the door on the right because she believe there is a dragon in the room on the left.
  • At Noon and Midnight a bellowing roar can easily be heard from the room on the left.
  • Kerna uses her innate magic to transport to her megalith and therefore has never been in either of the rooms she watches over.


Wild Card

Parry 4 | Tough 11 (4) | Pace 4 (d4)

Athletics d10 | Fighting d4-2

Shooting d4-2 | Ag d6, Sm d4, Sp d8, 

St d10, Vi d10 | Edges Alertness,

Brute, Improved Arcane Resistance,

Improved Block, Iron Jaw | 

Special Abilities Armor 4, Flight 

(Pace 10)

Friday, February 10, 2023

FLGS Owner on Palladium Books & Their Decision About The OGL

I've been a fan of the Palladium Megaverse since I found a copy of the Magic of Palladium Books at a local store (in Milan, IN) while in college in 1991. I was hooked. The art, the gonzo, the kitchen sink, the hyperbole. All of it. 

Sadly, I'm one of those people that is driven nuts by the Palladium "House System". It's a mess. I was a brand new gamer and I didn't realize that in that era the rules weren't supposed to cover everything and you, the GM, were supposed to figure that stuff out. But in 1991 I actually thought about writing Kevin a letter to find out exactly how many attacks a PC got in Heroes Unlimited. I was just stumped.

It never occurred to me to just set a base percentage chance to every Skill and ignore Boxing and those other skills.

Kevin and his business partner, Sean Owen Roberson, addressed WotC's OGL debacle in a Weekly Update during January. They even addressed how many people had asked for a d20 version of their games with this quote, "[Kevin] patiently detailed multiple reasons he considered [an OGL version] a very poor move, and in the end, I heartily agreed with him. As a close friend put it to me yesterday, Kevin called this one years ago. I don’t think we will hear this particular suggestion as much moving forward, but I wanted to note Kevin’s foresight and expertise in this matter."

The emphasis is mine. 

The OGL and the D20 license have been around over 20 years. How much money and fan good will would they have won in those 20+ years? Would his company have become the next Paizo? Or Goodman Games? Or Troll Lord Games? We won't ever know.

Would that have innovated a newer better system in that time? Again, we won't ever know.

What is wrong with Palladium Books is Kevin and his myopia and it is just one more thing to shake my head about from him.

Hell, he might send me a C&D because I referenced his work on my blog.

Death's Head Keep: Level 2, Room 9. #Dungeon23

A large library filled with hundreds of books on shelves going from the floor and a central circular table with a raven wearing a fez studying a scroll.

  • It is 40’ x 30’.
  • The ceiling is 15’ high and a stark white.
  • A huge chandelier provides bright natural light that is refreshing compared to what you have found in the Keep thus far.
  • A large circular table cut from sequoia sits under the chandelier with several books and scrolls scattered upon it.
  • A raven wearing a fez is engrossed with one of the scrolls on the table.

The raven won’t notice you until you make any kind of noise.

  • The raven is Xing Xao Xoo a Sorcerer who lost a bet with The Dagda and is now looking for a way to return to his own shape.
  • He is very egotistical and will lose interest in any conversation that doesn’t focus on him and his plight.
  • Xing has found the spell he needs but requires the eye of a ghoul, the tongue of a mimic, and a feather from Thoth whom he owes 80 gp.

Xing Xao Xoo 

Wild Card

Parry 6 Tough 12(6) Pace 6 (d6) 

Athletics d6 Fighting d6 

(talons d4 + d4) Shooting d6 | 

Spellcasting d12 Ag d8, Sm d12+1, 

Sp d8, St d4, Vi d8 | Edges Arcane 

Background (Magic), Channeling, Danger Sense, Improved Arcane Resistance, Quick, Wizard | Special Abilities Armor +6, Flight (Flying Pace of 12)


The walls are covered in books except for the door you entered through and a matching door across the way as the only exit.

  • The shelves are filled with histories, magical treatises, books on alchemy, geometry, astronomy, astrology, and bestiaries from all over the world.
  • The shelves in the far right corner are behind a orichalcum cage that is locked.
  • The cage is enchanted.
  • A successful Thievery check at -2 will detect and bypass the lock’s trap.
  • While a successful Thievery check at +1 will open the lock.
  • If the trap is not detected anyone within a Small Blast Template will take 4d6 cold damage that may be Evaded.

The books within the cage all deal with the darkest of subjects including awakening eldritch horrors, worshipping destructive deities, guides to Hell and the Abyss, and the foulest of sorceries.

  • On the bottom shelf is Melodia of Endor’s Book of Shadows. Studying it for at least a month will allow you to take Warlock and Witch Edges on pg. 95 of the SWADE Fantasy Companion.
  • The sole book on the fifth shelf is I, Cambion chronicling the life and times of Yussev the Hellbringer. Studying it for a month allows you to take the Diabolist Eges on pg. 86 of the SWADE Fantasy Companion.
  • On the eighth shelf is The Summoner’s Almanac whose author is unknown. Studying it for a month allows you to take the Summoner Edges on pg. 93 of the SWADE Fantasy Companion.
  • On the top shelf is the Kakodex by Fester Moonbow, the Lich of Eddings. Studying it for a month allows you to take the Necromancers Edges on pg. 90 of the SWADE Fantasy Companion.

Wednesday, February 8, 2023

Death's Head Keep: Level 2, Room 8. #Dungeond23

This cramped room has a enchanted torch, its flame a bright green, in a sconce on the left hand wall.

  • It is 15’ x 10’.
  • The torch in mounted 5’ above the floor in the middle of the left wall.
  • The ceiling is 9’ high and is made of strips of hard wood. Probably pine.

The wall to the right looks and smells as if it has been cleaned recently.

  • There are three small spots of blood on the floor that apparently were missed.

The far wall has a door in its left-hand corner.

  • The door’s hinges look like they’ve have been oiled a day or two ago.
  • At knee height 3 feet from the door someone has poorly etched these words into the wall, “we do not want to d”.

Tuesday, February 7, 2023

Death's Head Keep: Level 2, Room 7. #Dungeon23

The only light spills in from the open door to dimly reveal stacks of wooden chairs and a narrow walkway along the left wall.

  • It is 15’ x 25’.
  • The room is cool and dry.
  • There are 8 stacks of 5 to 7 chairs.
  • The ceiling is 8’ high.

There are 2 doors in the far left corner.

  • The first door is on the left hand wall about 3/4 of the way down that wall.
  • The second door is about 2’ from the left-hand corner on the far wall.

The first door has a padlock made out of a heavy steel.

  • The lock can be picked quickly and/or under stress with a successful Thievery check.
  • If there is no rush anyone with a d6 or higher in Thievery can pick it in d4 minutes.

The second door is unlocked and squeaks like a squirrel as it opens.

  • It is 15’ x 10’.
  • The room beyond its door has large pelts on the stone walls and a hearth with a roaring fire in the middle of the far wall.
  • Several couches face the fire and its comfortable warmth is felt from the doorway.
  • This “room” is a mimic and as soon as it least one person has entered its maw it attacks.
  • Us the stats from the Pathfinder for Savage Worlds Bestiary on page 90 with the following adjustments: Size is Large, Strength is d12+2, Toughness is 15 (2).
  • When the mimic is killed anyone inside of it is vomited out into the stacks of chairs and takes 2d6 damage and the “door” disappears.
  • Anyone who makes an Occult check can point out that the monster somehow used extra-dimensional space for its “gut”.
  • A successful Notice check at -1 allows the discovery of the mimic’s bezoar which at this size is worth 600 gp.

Monday, February 6, 2023

Death's Head Keep: Level 2, Room 6. #Dungeon23

 The far wall of this well lit room is composed of a huge mirror.

  • It is 20’ x 40’.
  • The floor is black stone that slopes subtly toward a drain in the center of the room.
  • The ceiling is barely 7’ high and makes the room feel cramped and tight.
  • The door you enter through disappears once everyone is in this room.

Moments after you catch sight of your reflection in the mirror it howls with fury and attacks you.

  • Your reflection has your stats and is a Wild Card as well.
  • When your reflection takes its 3rd Wound it shatters into broken glass. 

Death's Head Keep: Level 2, Room 5 #Dungeon23

 Soft light filters through gauzy curtains that reveal the silhouette of a figure lounging on pillows and singing a bawdy tune about a unicorn and a noble.

  • It is 25’ x 20’.
  • A rainbow of soft pastel scarves hang from a bright white ceiling barely concealing the singer.
  • Silk pillows litter the floor around the singer who reclines upon them with nary a care.
  • The smell of a yasemin cigarette, which rests lazily in the beings hand, is earthy and with a hint of musk.
  • The singing stops and the figure calls out, “Visitors? What day is it? Oh, yes. It is today.  I am Habrind Lokzmezcka and we must talk.”

The speaker is tall, lean and confident and once through the streamers Habrind is revealed to be a rakshasa with white fur and emerald stripes.

  • Habrind makes no effort to rise and will not stop anyone from simply moving toward the door in the middle of the far wall.
  • His eyes are lavender and each time he takes a drag on his cigarette he shapes the blown smoke into fantastic shapes such as narwhals, kaiju, and comets.
  • If the PCs choose to interact with him he offers them cigarettes and cinnamon tea. Neither item will harm them.
  • He explains that he is the Witch Queen’s Major Domo and it is his job to prevent trespassers.
  • The Witch Queen doesn’t want her experiments jeopardized and has no patience for “adventurers”.
  • He offers each of them 200 gp and teleportation to any area within 10 miles.
  • If he is attacked he shrinks and heads for a small hole in the wall behind his pillows.
  • Any Notice check to find him is at a -4.


Parry 7 | Tough 8 | Pace 10 (d10)

Athletics d12 | Fighting d10 

(claws d12+1 + d6) | Shooting d10 |

Spellcasting d12 | Ag d10, Sm d12, 

Sp d10, St d12+1, Vi d12 | 

Skills Notice d10, Gambling d10, 

Intimidation d10, Persuasion d12 | 

Edges Arcane Background (Magic),

Strong-Willed, Danger Sense, Humiliate,

Rabble Rouser, Retort, Tough As Nails | 

Powers Armor, Confusion, Entangle, 

Growth/Shrink,Illusion, Puppet, 

Quickness, Stun, Teleport | 

Power Points 50

Sunday, February 5, 2023

Death's Head Keep: Level 2, Room 4 #Dungeon23

 A dozen skeletons hang from long chains, attached to the ceiling, swaying lazily. 

  • The left hand door from room 2 leads here.
  • It is 40’ x 40’.
  • The ceiling is 50’ high.
  • The chains are 40’ long.
  • The skeleton’s feet are approximately 3’ off the ground.
  • The floor is stone that has been stained pink in many places.

The chains form a maze that leads to a door in the left corner of the far wall.

  • Touching any chain awakens the 12 skeletons who immediately drop to the ground and attack the closest enemy.
  • If the Action Card for the skeletons is a black king or black queen a wraith is summoned and an Action Card card is dealt for it.
  • Navigating the maze without touching the chains requires 3 succesfull Athletic checks at -1 for each PC.

Skeleton x 12

Parry 5 | Tough 5 | Pace 6 (d6)

Fighting d6 (claws d6 + d4)

Shooting d6 | Athletics d6

Ag d6, Sm d4, Sp d4, St d6, Vi d6 | 

Edges Combat Reflexes


Wild Card

Parry 6 Tough Pace 10 (d10) 

Fighting d8 (claws d8 + d4) 

Shooting d6 (death stare 2d8 6/12/24)  | 

Athletics d6 Ag d8, Sm d6, Sp d6, 

St d8, Vi d8 | Edges Dead Shot | 

Powers Flying

Thundarr the Movie

As a life-long comics fan and a retailer with a quarter century of experience, I was today years old when I discovered that Buzz Dixon and ...